Sort Vote

Production of Protein-Complex Components Is Stoichiometric and Lacks General Feedback Regulation in Eukaryotes

Careful reanalysis of ribosome profiling data revealed proportional synthesis for the vast majority of protein complexes in budding yeast and…

No comment Open link

Careful reanalysis of ribosome profiling data revealed proportional synthesis for
the vast majority of protein complexes in budding yeast and large complexes in higher
eukaryotes. Furthermore, systematic perturbation to chromosome copy number demonstrated
that precise rates of protein synthesis are hard coded in the genome rather than actively
monitored and maintained through feedback.

Hydropatterning—how roots test the waters

As sessile organisms, plants rely on their roots to acquire sufficient water and nutrients from the soil. Making the right…

No comment Open link

As sessile organisms, plants rely on their roots to acquire sufficient water and nutrients from the soil. Making the right choice about where to deploy new roots can determine survival, especially when soil resources are scarce and unevenly distributed. Recently, it was discovered that plant roots can respond to gradients of soil moisture by favoring the formation of lateral roots toward sites with available water ([ 1 ][1]). On page 1407 of this issue, Orosa-Puente et al. ([ 2 ][2]) show how growth along an air-water interface in the soil triggers asymmetric activation of a signaling module coordinated by the plant hormone auxin that biases lateral root initiation to the side in contact with water. These findings demonstrate how spatial environmental cues determine organ formation in higher plants.

The ability to generate new roots postembryonically confers plants a high degree of developmental plasticity. The formation of lateral roots starts deep in the parental root tissue. There, a specific number of cells of the pericycle, the tissue that delimits the root vasculature, are “primed” as lateral root founder cells at periodic intervals ([ 3 ][3]). Rather than progressing continuously, the initiation of lateral roots from primed pericycle cells can be stimulated or arrested at any developmental stage ([ 4 ][4]), allowing roots to adjust the number and spacing of lateral roots to the prevailing environmental conditions. This plasticity offers plants the opportunity to efficiently colonize regions of high resource availability, as long as root sensing mechanisms can precisely locate these sites.

In many plant species, low water availability can stimulate root expansion and steeper growth angles to improve water uptake from deeper soil layers ([ 5 ][5], [ 6 ][6]). In soils that are not completely dry or flooded, an airwater interface develops between soil particles (see the figure). At this microscale, variations in water availability trigger abscisic acid–dependent hydrotropic growth to differentially modulate cell elongation, allowing roots to bend toward water ([ 7 ][7], [ 8 ][8]). Additionally, tissue patterning is altered when roots are exposed to differential water availability on either side of the root. This adaptive response, termed hydropatterning, induces the formation of root hairs and aerenchyma (plant tissues containing enlarged gas-filled intercellular spaces) in the air-exposed side of roots, while positioning more lateral roots on the side that has direct contact with water ([ 1 ][1]). Although local water availability induces auxin biosynthesis and signaling ([ 1 ][1]), it has remained unknown how these changes are translated into asymmetrical lateral root formation across the root axis.

![Figure][9]

Shaped by water
Where there are small-scale differences in water availability around soil particles, water potential gradients are sensed in roots (red cells). Hydrotropism guides roots towards water, whereas hydropatterning alters the distribution of root hairs and lateral roots along the root circumference (not to scale). ARF7-dependent asymmetric LBD16 expression triggers lateral root initiation on the side in contact with water.

GRAPHIC: N. DESAI/ SCIENCE

Orosa-Puente et al. found that mutations in the transcription factor AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7), a key regulator of lateral root initiation ([ 9 ][10]), impaired the ability of plants to bias root branching toward moisture. Although LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN 16 (LBD16), a downstream target of ARF7, accumulates preferentially in lateral root founder cells on the water-exposed side, ARF7 is evenly expressed around the circumferential axis of the root. However, ARF7 can be posttranslationally modified with small ubiquitin modifier (SUMO). Arabidopsis plants lacking the SUMO proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT 1 (OTS1) and OTS2 ([ 10 ][11]), which promote deconjugation of SUMO from ARF7, exhibit a hydropatterning defect akin to ARF7 mutants. Intriguingly, SUMOylation does not affect the universal function of ARF7 to promote lateral root initiation but instead affects its capability to regulate the root branching pattern in response to water. ARF proteins can be inactivated by INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID–INDUCIBLE (IAA) proteins in an auxin-dependent manner ([ 11 ][12]). This is also the case for ARF7, the DNA-binding activity of which is controlled by IAA3 and IAA14 at different stages of lateral root development ([ 12 ][13], [ 13 ][14]). Orosa-Puente et al. identified that SUMOylation is specifically required for ARF7 recruitment and inactivation by IAA3 but is dispensable for the interaction with IAA14. These findings provide insights into how an environmental cue can fine-tune the function of common regulators of development to induce specific phenotypic plasticity.

Hydropatterning is conserved in many plant species and targets early stages of lateral root development, such as the positioning of founder cells along the main root axis ([ 1 ][1]). Developmental competence for hydropatterning is largely limited to the root zone undergoing active growth and is lost as cells mature ([ 14 ][15]). This has led to the hypothesis that water gradients are sensed near the root tip, leaving a positional imprint that triggers lateral root initiation further up in the root. In the growing root tip, cell expansion builds up a water potential gradient that increases hydraulic conductivity ([ 14 ][15]). As water uptake rates are higher in expanding cells, differential access to water along the root circumference may generate sizable differences in water potential. Yet, experimentally demonstrating the existence of such gradients at this scale is very challenging. More research is necessary to uncover how root cells sense water potentials and how signals detected in outer cells are transmitted to inner root tissue. Interestingly, Orosa-Puente et al. observed that ARF7 SUMOylation occurs when roots are exposed to air, even though they have been unable to demonstrate if ARF7 is differentially SUMOylated in a root exposed to an air-water interface. Nonetheless, this finding suggests that the absence of water on its own serves as an informative cue for developmental decisions without depending on changes in cellular osmolarity.

Because water is such a critical resource for plant growth and development, it is not surprising that plants have evolved additional adaptive mechanisms. Although hydropatterning can increase root surface contact with water, the steering of growth direction by hydrotropism places this organ in water-available sites. Thus, if lateral roots primed by hydropatterning emerge at sites that become dry, hydrotropic growth allows them to maneuver toward water.

Considering the strong negative impact of precipitation variability on crop yield ([ 15 ][16]), breeding crops with a predefined root system architecture may be less appropriate than exploiting plasticity and sensing mechanisms to improve root adaptability to spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture. In this context, it will be interesting to determine the contribution of hydropatterning to water and nutrient uptake under challenging water regimes and to investigate how water and nutrient signals are integrated to shape root system architecture. Thus, manipulating the molecular mechanism uncovered by Orosa-Puente et al. and tapping into possible natural allelic variation for hydropatterning have potential for breeding crops that are better able to withstand environmental stresses.

1. [↵][17]1. Y. Bao et al

., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 9319 (2014).

[OpenUrl][18][Abstract/FREE Full Text][19]

2. [↵][20]1. B. Orosa-Puente et al

., Science 362, 1407 (2018).

[OpenUrl][21][Abstract/FREE Full Text][22]

3. [↵][23]1. M. A. Moreno-Risueno et al

., Science 329, 1306 (2010).

[OpenUrl][24][Abstract/FREE Full Text][25]

4. [↵][26]1. J. Lavenus et al

., Trends Plant Sci. 18, 450 (2013).

[OpenUrl][27][CrossRef][28][PubMed][29]

5. [↵][30]1. Y. Uga et al

., Nat. Genet. 45, 1097 (2013).

[OpenUrl][31][CrossRef][32][PubMed][33]

6. [↵][34]1. R. Rellán-Álvarez et al

., eLife 4, e07597 (2015).

[OpenUrl][35][CrossRef][36]

7. [↵][37]1. N. Takahashi et al

., Planta 216, 203 (2002).

[OpenUrl][38][CrossRef][39][PubMed][40][Web of Science][41]

8. [↵][42]1. D. Dietrich et al

., Nat. Plants 3, 17057 (2017).

[OpenUrl][43]

9. [↵][44]1. Y. Okushima et al

., Plant Cell 19, 118 (2007).

[OpenUrl][45][Abstract/FREE Full Text][46]

10. [↵][47]1. L. Conti et al

., Plant Cell 20, 2894 (2008).

[OpenUrl][48][Abstract/FREE Full Text][49]

11. [↵][50]1. S. B. Tiwari et al

., Plant Cell 16, 533 (2004).

[OpenUrl][51][Abstract/FREE Full Text][52]

12. [↵][53]1. H. Fukaku et al

., Plant J. 44, 382 (2005).

[OpenUrl][54][CrossRef][55][PubMed][56][Web of Science][57]

13. [↵][58]1. K. Swarup et al

., Nat. Cell Biol. 10, 946 (2008).

[OpenUrl][59][CrossRef][60][PubMed][61][Web of Science][62]

14. [↵][63]1. N. E. Robins II,
2. J. R. Dinneny

, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, E822 (2018).

[OpenUrl][64][Abstract/FREE Full Text][65]

15. [↵][66]1. D. K. Ray et al

., Nat. Commun. 6, 5989 (2015).

[OpenUrl][67][CrossRef][68]

[1]: #ref-1
[2]: #ref-2
[3]: #ref-3
[4]: #ref-4
[5]: #ref-5
[6]: #ref-6
[7]: #ref-7
[8]: #ref-8
[9]: pending:yes
[10]: #ref-9
[11]: #ref-10
[12]: #ref-11
[13]: #ref-12
[14]: #ref-13
[15]: #ref-14
[16]: #ref-15
[17]: #xref-ref-1-1 “View reference 1 in text”
[18]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DProc.%2BNatl.%2BAcad.%2BSci.%2BU.S.A.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1073%252Fpnas.1400966111%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F24927545%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[19]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6NDoicG5hcyI7czo1OiJyZXNpZCI7czoxMToiMTExLzI1LzkzMTkiO3M6NDoiYXRvbSI7czoyMzoiL3NjaS8zNjIvNjQyMS8xMzU4LmF0b20iO31zOjg6ImZyYWdtZW50IjtzOjA6IiI7fQ==
[20]: #xref-ref-2-1 “View reference 2 in text”
[21]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DScience%26rft.stitle%253DScience%26rft.aulast%253DOrosa-Puente%26rft.auinit1%253DB.%26rft.volume%253D362%26rft.issue%253D6421%26rft.spage%253D1407%26rft.epage%253D1410%26rft.atitle%253DRoot%2Bbranching%2Btoward%2Bwater%2Binvolves%2Bposttranslational%2Bmodification%2Bof%2Btranscription%2Bfactor%2BARF7%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1126%252Fscience.aau3956%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[22]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6Mzoic2NpIjtzOjU6InJlc2lkIjtzOjEzOiIzNjIvNjQyMS8xNDA3IjtzOjQ6ImF0b20iO3M6MjM6Ii9zY2kvMzYyLzY0MjEvMTM1OC5hdG9tIjt9czo4OiJmcmFnbWVudCI7czowOiIiO30=
[23]: #xref-ref-3-1 “View reference 3 in text”
[24]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DScience%26rft.stitle%253DScience%26rft.aulast%253DMoreno-Risueno%26rft.auinit1%253DM.%2BA.%26rft.volume%253D329%26rft.issue%253D5997%26rft.spage%253D1306%26rft.epage%253D1311%26rft.atitle%253DOscillating%2BGene%2BExpression%2BDetermines%2BCompetence%2Bfor%2BPeriodic%2BArabidopsis%2BRoot%2BBranching%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1126%252Fscience.1191937%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F20829477%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[25]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6Mzoic2NpIjtzOjU6InJlc2lkIjtzOjEzOiIzMjkvNTk5Ny8xMzA2IjtzOjQ6ImF0b20iO3M6MjM6Ii9zY2kvMzYyLzY0MjEvMTM1OC5hdG9tIjt9czo4OiJmcmFnbWVudCI7czowOiIiO30=
[26]: #xref-ref-4-1 “View reference 4 in text”
[27]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DTrends%2BPlant%2BSci.%26rft.volume%253D18%26rft.spage%253D450%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1016%252Fj.tplants.2013.04.006%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F23701908%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[28]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1016/j.tplants.2013.04.006&link_type=DOI
[29]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=23701908&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F362%2F6421%2F1358.atom
[30]: #xref-ref-5-1 “View reference 5 in text”
[31]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNat.%2BGenet.%26rft.volume%253D45%26rft.spage%253D1097%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1038%252Fng.2725%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F23913002%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[32]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1038/ng.2725&link_type=DOI
[33]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=23913002&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F362%2F6421%2F1358.atom
[34]: #xref-ref-6-1 “View reference 6 in text”
[35]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DeLife%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.7554%252FeLife.07597%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[36]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.7554/eLife.07597&link_type=DOI
[37]: #xref-ref-7-1 “View reference 7 in text”
[38]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DPlanta%26rft.stitle%253DPlanta%26rft.aulast%253DTakahashi%26rft.auinit1%253DN.%26rft.volume%253D216%26rft.issue%253D2%26rft.spage%253D203%26rft.epage%253D211%26rft.atitle%253DHydrotropism%2Bin%2Babscisic%2Bacid%252C%2Bwavy%252C%2Band%2Bgravitropic%2Bmutants%2Bof%2BArabidopsis%2Bthaliana.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1007%252Fs00425-002-0840-3%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F12447533%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[39]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1007/s00425-002-0840-3&link_type=DOI
[40]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=12447533&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F362%2F6421%2F1358.atom
[41]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000180037300002&link_type=ISI
[42]: #xref-ref-8-1 “View reference 8 in text”
[43]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNat.%2BPlants%26rft.volume%253D3%26rft.spage%253D17057%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[44]: #xref-ref-9-1 “View reference 9 in text”
[45]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DPlant%2BCell%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1105%252Ftpc.106.047761%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F17259263%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[46]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6OToicGxhbnRjZWxsIjtzOjU6InJlc2lkIjtzOjg6IjE5LzEvMTE4IjtzOjQ6ImF0b20iO3M6MjM6Ii9zY2kvMzYyLzY0MjEvMTM1OC5hdG9tIjt9czo4OiJmcmFnbWVudCI7czowOiIiO30=
[47]: #xref-ref-10-1 “View reference 10 in text”
[48]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DPlant%2BCell%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1105%252Ftpc.108.058669%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F18849491%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[49]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6OToicGxhbnRjZWxsIjtzOjU6InJlc2lkIjtzOjEwOiIyMC8xMC8yODk0IjtzOjQ6ImF0b20iO3M6MjM6Ii9zY2kvMzYyLzY0MjEvMTM1OC5hdG9tIjt9czo4OiJmcmFnbWVudCI7czowOiIiO30=
[50]: #xref-ref-11-1 “View reference 11 in text”
[51]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DPlant%2BCell%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1105%252Ftpc.017384%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F14742873%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[52]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6OToicGxhbnRjZWxsIjtzOjU6InJlc2lkIjtzOjg6IjE2LzIvNTMzIjtzOjQ6ImF0b20iO3M6MjM6Ii9zY2kvMzYyLzY0MjEvMTM1OC5hdG9tIjt9czo4OiJmcmFnbWVudCI7czowOiIiO30=
[53]: #xref-ref-12-1 “View reference 12 in text”
[54]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DThe%2BPlant%2Bjournal%2B%253A%2B%2Bfor%2Bcell%2Band%2Bmolecular%2Bbiology%26rft.stitle%253DPlant%2BJ%26rft.aulast%253DFukaki%26rft.auinit1%253DH.%26rft.volume%253D44%26rft.issue%253D3%26rft.spage%253D382%26rft.epage%253D395%26rft.atitle%253DTissue-specific%2Bexpression%2Bof%2Bstabilized%2BSOLITARY-ROOT%252FIAA14%2Balters%2Blateral%2Broot%2Bdevelopment%2Bin%2BArabidopsis.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1111%252Fj.1365-313X.2005.02537.x%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F16236149%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[55]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02537.x&link_type=DOI
[56]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=16236149&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F362%2F6421%2F1358.atom
[57]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000232660000003&link_type=ISI
[58]: #xref-ref-13-1 “View reference 13 in text”
[59]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNature%2BCell%2BBiology%26rft.stitle%253DNature%2BCell%2BBiology%26rft.aulast%253DSwarup%26rft.auinit1%253DK.%26rft.volume%253D10%26rft.issue%253D8%26rft.spage%253D946%26rft.epage%253D954%26rft.atitle%253DThe%2Bauxin%2Binflux%2Bcarrier%2BLAX3%2Bpromotes%2Blateral%2Broot%2Bemergence.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1038%252Fncb1754%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F18622388%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[60]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1038/ncb1754&link_type=DOI
[61]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=18622388&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F362%2F6421%2F1358.atom
[62]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000258147100012&link_type=ISI
[63]: #xref-ref-14-1 “View reference 14 in text”
[64]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DProc.%2BNatl.%2BAcad.%2BSci.%2BU.S.A.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1073%252Fpnas.1710709115%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F29317538%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[65]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6NDoicG5hcyI7czo1OiJyZXNpZCI7czoxMDoiMTE1LzQvRTgyMiI7czo0OiJhdG9tIjtzOjIzOiIvc2NpLzM2Mi82NDIxLzEzNTguYXRvbSI7fXM6ODoiZnJhZ21lbnQiO3M6MDoiIjt9
[66]: #xref-ref-15-1 “View reference 15 in text”
[67]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNat.%2BCommun.%26rft.volume%253D6%26rft.spage%253D5989%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1038%252Fncomms6989%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx
[68]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1038/ncomms6989&link_type=DOI

Intraoperative detection of blood vessels with an imaging needle during neurosurgery in humans

Intracranial hemorrhage can be a devastating complication associated with needle biopsies of the brain. Hemorrhage can occur to vessels located…

No comment Open link

Intracranial hemorrhage can be a devastating complication associated with needle biopsies of the brain. Hemorrhage can occur to vessels located adjacent to the biopsy needle as tissue is aspirated into the needle and removed. No intraoperative technology exists to reliably identify blood vessels that are at risk of damage. To address this problem, we developed an “imaging needle” that can visualize nearby blood vessels in real time. The imaging needle contains a miniaturized optical coherence tomography probe that allows differentiation of blood flow and tissue. In 11 patients, we were able to intraoperatively detect blood vessels (diameter, >500 μm) with a sensitivity of 91.2% and a specificity of 97.7%. This is the first reported use of an optical coherence tomography needle probe in human brain in vivo. These results suggest that imaging needles may serve as a valuable tool in a range of neurosurgical needle interventions.

Humans wiped out mosquitoes (in one small lab test)

An early lab test of exterminating a much-hated mosquito raises hopes, but is it really such a great idea?

No comment Open link

Humans wiped out mosquitoes (in one small lab test)

An early lab test of exterminating a much-hated mosquito raises hopes, but is it really such a great idea?

Optimal control of irrupting pest populations in a climate-driven ecosystem

Irruptions of small consumer populations, driven by pulsed resources, can lead to adverse effects including the decline of indigenous species…

No comment Open link

Irruptions of small consumer populations, driven by pulsed resources, can lead to adverse effects including the decline of indigenous species or increased disease spread. Broad-scale pest management to combat such effects benefits from forecasting of irruptions and an assessment of the optimal control conditions for minimising consumer abundance. We use a climate-based consumer-resource model to predict irruptions of a pest species (Mus musculus) population in response to masting (episodic synchronous seed production) and extend this model to account for broad-scale pest control of mice using toxic bait. The extended model is used to forecast the magnitude and frequency of pest irruptions under low, moderate and high control levels, and for different timings of control operations. In particular, we assess the optimal control timing required to minimise the frequency with which pests reach ‘plague’ levels, whilst avoiding excessive toxin use. Model predictions suggest the optimal timing for mouse control in beech forest, with respect to minimising plague time, is mid-September. Of the control regimes considered, a seedfall driven biannual-biennial regime gave the greatest reduction in plague time and plague years for low and moderate control levels. Although inspired by a model validated using house mouse populations in New Zealand forests, our modelling approach is easily adapted for application to other climate-driven systems where broad-scale control is conducted on irrupting pest populations.

Reversal of ApoE4-induced recycling block as a novel prevention approach for Alzheimer’s disease

Lowering endosomal pH through inhibition of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6 corrects the ApoE4-induced Reelin resistance and restores neuronal glutamate receptor trafficking.

No comment Open link

Lowering endosomal pH through inhibition of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6 corrects the ApoE4-induced Reelin resistance and restores neuronal glutamate receptor trafficking.

Open science: the future of research?

If we want to eradicate diseases in the developing world, increase innovation in the pharmaceutical industry and speed up the…

No comment Open link

Open science: the future of research?

If we want to eradicate diseases in the developing world, increase innovation in the pharmaceutical industry and speed up the discovery of new medicines we need to share research, writes Alice Williamson.

Groundwater quality dataset of Semarang area, Indonesia

The regional environmental changes are affecting groundwater ecosystems in Semarang area. The development of new settlements, industrial complexes, and trade…

No comment Open link

The regional environmental changes are affecting groundwater ecosystems in Semarang area. The development of new settlements, industrial complexes, and trade centers have degraded the groundwater setting of the city, which serves as the capital of Central Java Province. This has led us to compile several groundwater quality dataset that have been taken from 1992 to 2007. Our original motivation is to come up with an open dataset that can be used as the baseline for groundwater monitoring.
The dataset consists of 58 samples were taken in 1992, 1993, 2003, 2006, and 2007 using well point data from several reports from Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, engineering consultants, as well as from researchers from Universitas Diponegoro and Institut Teknologi Bandung. Each site has a set of 20 physical and chemical variables.

Morphological characterization and staging of bumble bee pupae

Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus) are important pollinators and models for studying mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity, such as factors influencing…

No comment

Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus) are important pollinators and models for studying mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity, such as factors influencing size, immunity, and social behaviors. Research on such processes, as well as expanding use of gene-manipulation and gene expression technologies, requires a detailed understanding of how these bees develop. Developmental research often uses time-staging of pupae, however dramatic size differences in these bees can generate variation in developmental timing. To study developmental mechanisms in bumble bees, appropriate staging of developing bees using morphology is necessary. In this study, we describe morphological changes across development in several bumble bee species and use this to establish morphology-based staging criteria, establishing 20 distinct illustrated stages. These criteria, defined largely by eye and cuticle pigmentation patterns, are generalizable across members of the subgenus Pyrobombus, and can be used as a framework for study of other bumble bee subgenera. We examine the effects of temperature, caste, size, and species on pupal development, revealing that pupal duration shifts with each of these factors, confirming the importance of staging pupae based on morphology rather than age and the need for standardizing sampling.